By Amy and Cheyenne
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The Greeks love music and art, it is a big part of their daily lives. The Greeks believed that the muses and Apollo were the main gods of music and art. The muses were the goddesses of arts and science. Apollo is their leader. The Greeks believed strongly in their religion so most of their music and arts are related to them. Their religion associated with the gods and goddesses upon Mount Olympus. They say they have control over the seasons, weather, wars and many other thing man could not explain. Arts and music were used for entertainment in theatres or at home, and also people painted, recited and wrote for a living. Athens, Sparta and Olympia were the three main cities of the ancient culture. Athens was the home to the Parthenon and Acropolis. Sparta harboured many beautiful sights. Olympia not only was the home of the ancient Olympics, it was also the home to many great structures.

Map of Ancient Greece
Map of Ancient Greece

Music


There are different types of music for different social events. Such as the birth of a child or a death of a senior. There are work songs for farmer and athletes and warriors train to the music of pipes. Music often accompanies poetry. The music that the Greeks make are with many musical instruments. Some of them are the lyre (which was invented by Hermes), kithara (a more elaborate lyre), cymbals, syrinx (pipes), auloi (double pipes), timpanon (a kind of drum), and the harp. Greek music isn't usually written down, so we do not know what it had sounded like. Only a small number of symbols have been found but is difficult to interpret what they mean. Music in ancient Greece can be found just about anywhere. On the streets, in a home, at a park, even on a farm there is music playing. The great Apollo was the god of music, healing and poetry. He is often shown with a lyre, that Hermes had given him in trade of some cattle that Hermes had stolen from him. All musicians, rhapsodes, and poets respect him and pray for good luck.



Pottery

Greek Kylix
Greek Kylix
Making pottery was very useful for daily lives; for containing liquids, decoration and many other uses. During the Dark Ages they made pottery with simple geometric patterns and in the Bronze Age they made fish and plant decorations on their artwork. They also decorated their pottery with scenes from their mythology and their
Greek Amphora
Greek Amphora
everyday life. One of the peices of pottery is called an amphora, it wine, oil and many other liquids. Skyphos, Kantharos and Kylixes are used as drinking cups. The Pyxis is a makeup box and flasks are used as perfume and perfumed oil and ointments. Pottery was made by potters who made a variety of things. They were baked in a kiln, that was heated by charcoal and wood. They painted their pottery in very complicated designs, and pictures that weaved a story about their religion and wars they have been through.

Greek Urn
Greek Urn


Poetry

In ancient Greece poetry was used in art, music and education. Most of the poems are memorized rather than written down. This is because many
Sappho by Gustav Klimt
Sappho by Gustav Klimt
people couldn't read or write. Rhapsodes usually performed in public and spoke to the rhythm of music. While rhapsodes performed poems as a living, most poets had a second job. Some were philosophers, soldiers or teachers. Two of the most famous poets in ancient Greece was Homer and Sappho. Homer was more a legendary person than a historical figure because none biographical information has been found. He worte the Iliad and the Odessey, both pieces were very famous. Sappho was born in Eresos, and she was born somewhere in between 630 and 612 BC, and died around 570 BC. She is very famous for her peoms but most of her poems were lost during the years. She was exiled from Lesbos to Sicily because of some political matters. But not before having a daughter named Cleis.



Sculptures


Most of the sculptures produced in ancient Greece were made of bronze, stone or white marble. There are three
Greek sculpture (lion)
Greek sculpture (lion)
major periods in sculpture making, the Archaic period (8th to early 5th century BC), Classical period (5th to 4th century BC), and Hellenstic period (late 4th to 1st century BC). The sculptures were painted mostly in strong colours, such as red, yellow and shades of black. The ancient greeks also made metal figurines, most of them were animals, such as cattle, dogs, horses and many other animals. They were commonly found in Olympia. Clay was also used to make figurines, instead of animals, they were people, called bell idols and tangara figures. Some of them were made in clay or bronze. During the Archaic period, the Greeks became inspired of using stone from the Mesopotamians and Egyptians. They carved people standing in a straight positions with hands by their sides. Before the Greeks started making a sculpture, they studied the item they were studying very carefully.



Architecture

Statue of Athena
Statue of Athena
The most beautiful buildings in ancient Greece were the temples made for the Gods on Mount Olympus. Other structures were built to remember a success in a war or for the governments purposes. The Greeks invented three ways of architectural systems.The Doric, a sturdy type, the Ionic, a thinner and more elegant type, the Corinthian, rarely seen in Greek architecture but oftern seen in buildings in Rome, they have acanthus leaves on the top of the columns. The Acropolis in Greek means the 'sacred rock', and is
Athens - Acropolis: Parthenon (West Side)
Athens - Acropolis: Parthenon (West Side)
usually dedicated to the goddess Athena. The most famous Acropolis is the one in Athens. The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis in Athens is a very famous structure too. Work to build the Parthenon began in 447 BC. They built the Parthenon to replace an original structure that was ruined by the Persians, also because to present the world with the Athenian wealth and power. The Parthenon wasn't harmed until the 19th century when a Roman king came and took the image of Athena, and after turned it into a church. The Temple of Zeus is another famous structure. It is in Olympia, and is built about in 470 and 456 BC. The man who designed this building was a local named Libon. He designed it pure doric style. He also designed the huge statue of Zeus inside the temple. During the ancient Olympics everyone who participated in an event came to pray for good luck at the temple and bowed at the feet of Zeus. An earthquake in the 5th century AD destroyed it but it still maintains its majestic.
Temple of Zeus
Temple of Zeus

Dance


There are two major groups of dancing, the Apollonian dance and the Dionysian dance. The dances were named after the two gods because they believed that the gods on top of Mount Olympus invented dancing. The art of dancing was associated with their religous ceremonies, to ensure fertility in crops, to prepare for war, to celebrate weddings, to express feelings, and to cure illnesses. Almost all the dances had a story in them to tell. The latter is the oldest type of dancing, but most pf the dances all include dacing in a circle, going counter-clockwise. They usually held hands, shoulders or wrists or were linked by hankerchiefs. In other dances men would lead them, almost always the oldest in the village, but men and women rarely danced together in the olden times. Each region in ancient Greece had their own style of dancing and music. For example Macedonia is more into folk music and dances, while the Aegean Islands use more springy and jumpy steps.




Jewellery


T
Golden Bead
Golden Bead
he Greek developed an advanced type of metalworking techniques, but only after the Egyptians and Mesopotamians. But quickly outshone them and made a very different styled jewellery. They mostly made jewellery with gold, copper, silver, lead and iron, unlike the Egyptians and Mesopotamians, they did not use semi-precious stones. They made hair pieces, belts, necklaces, bracelets, earings, accessories on clothing and rings. The decoration on the jewellery varied on the period of time, changing from simple to complex. One of the techniques they used was twisting gold, silver or copper into wires and braiding them into a pieces of artwork. Another technique is to hammer gold into very thin sheets and cut intricate designs out of it and
Golden Hair Ornament
Golden Hair Ornament
paste the on a finished piece. Different tools were used to make different techiques on the jewellery's surface. They made stamps and stamped the design on to the golden sheets on bands. Sharp tools with designs in the point were used to make repeated designs, and also the were used to draw pictures on the pieces of jewellery. The Greeks often traded jewellery for other items that they didn't have. They traded with Mesopotamia, Egypt and the rest of Europe.

Golden Earings
Golden Earings
Golden hammered decoration
Golden hammered decoration





Reference

- Chrislom, Jane. O'Brien Eileen. Greeks, Usborne Publishing Ltd., 2003, London, England
- Miles, Lisa. Reid, Struan. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, Usborne Publishing Ltd., 2002, London, England
- Roullier, Christian. Ancient Greek Poetry, http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/portland%20state%20university%20greek%20civilization%20home%20page%20v2/docs/8/poetry.htm
- Art, http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Art/
- Photos, http://www.flickr.com/
- Bronze, http://library.thinkquest.org/23492/data/bronze.htm
- Greek Statue and Ancient Greek Sculpture, http://www.statue.com/greek-statues.html
- Art in Ancient Greece, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_in_ancient_Greece#Sculpture
- Ancient Greek Dance, http://www.carnaval.com/greece/dance/
- Antiquity/ Origin of Dance, http://www.annaswebart.com/culture/dancehistory/history/
- Portrait of the Greek Dance, http://www.enostos.net/dance/
- Video, http://www.youtube.com/
- The Greek Poems, http://community.middlebury.edu/~harris/Sappho.pdf
- Muses, http://www.pantheon.org/articles/m/muses.html
- Greek Jewellery, http://www.add.gr/jewel/elka/
- Greek Pottery, http://www.2020site.org/greece/index.html
- Sappho, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sappho
- Temple of Zeus, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cl135/Students/Rebecca_Furer/temple.html