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Created By:

Shayan and Matt H.



Introduction

The Ancient Egyptians were very smart and resourceful . They especially good in all military aspects which was one of the reasons that they could keep a civilization going for centuries. They had probabaly one of the most stable and famous monarchy governements in history. Since they had such a big area a kingdom to cover they needed a very exceptional army to protect the Pharoah,kingdom and keep people in line. The Egyptian army mastered all kinds of weapons, tactics and techniques to assist them in stabilizing the kingdom. They were greatfully admired by other armies in other parts of the world back then and are still today.
bowman
bowman




soldiers marching
soldiers marching


Ranking:

Pharaoh, commander in chief

  • General, or overseer of the army, who reported directly to the pharaoh
  • Lieutenant commander, serving as senior officer
  • Overseer of the Nubian frontier and Mediterranean coast fortresses
  • Overseer of garrison troops
  • Troop commander, in charge of several regiments, a brigade or a fortress
  • Captain of the troop
  • Commander of 250 soldiers
  • Standard-bearer, controlling 200 men
  • "Greatest of Fifty", the lowest commander
external image diagram%20army.gif
http://www.egyptologyonline.com/diagram%20army.gif





Weaponry

throwing stick
throwing stick

The Egyptians used lots of melee weapons such as long swords, short swords, daggers, battle axes, primitive maces, double battle axes,curved swords, and clubs. As for ranged weapons they used the standard bow and arrow, spears, blow darts, and throwing knives and axes. As for body armour they mostly used a shield and helmets but usually nothing else until way later. When the Hyksos invaded Egypt they were introduced to horse drawn chariots, scimitars, and body armour. Basically Egypt got more advanced as they progressed. This is what it looks like using a chart.

How They Got The Weapons

The Ancinet Egyptians bought their weapons by trading. Back then there was no monitarial system. The ways that the Ancient Egyptians got thier military equipment was either making them or trading with other people or other countries.

Weaponry Chart

Period
Technology Summary
New Technologies
New Kingdom
Spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, bows, daggers, mace, shield, quiver, battle axe, battle axe 2#, chariot, composite bow, battle axe 3#, blow darts
Scimitar, body armour
2nd Intermediate Period
Spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, bows, daggers, mace, shield, quiver, battle axe, battle axe 2#, blow darts
Chariot, composite bow, battle axe with narrow head
Middle Kingdom
Spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, bows daggers, mace, shield, quiver, battle axe
Battle axe with scalloped axe head
Old Kingdom
Spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, bows, daggers, mace, shield, blow darts
quiver, battle-axe, with semi circular axe head
Late Preydynastic
Spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, bows, daggers, mace, blow darts
shield
Preydynastic
Spears, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, bows, daggers, blow darts
mace
Archaic
Spears, cudgels, throwing sticks, daggers, blow darts
bow


Military Tactics
The Ancient Egyptians had very basic tactics that they used. One of their main strenghts in combat was ranged attacks. This was probably their dominant skill that they used against their enemies during combat. This is because that one of their first weapons that they used was bows. Not much later they also invented quivers and composite bows. Also their geographical enviroment was perfect for archers. They had desert all around them and flat ground. This allowed them to shoot farther because they had more space. Also in hot places, the atmosphere is thinner allowing the projectile to go considerably faster. One of their best tactics was the chariot. Archers would stand on them and shoot at anyone in their path. The Egyptians also conquered water and started one of the first Navies in history and used the navy to sneak up on intruder using a way no one would ever think of. One last tactic that they used was mercinaries. If they were short on " volunteer workers" they would pay free agents or mercenaries that will come to fight with them. This tactic is still used today all around the world.

Archer on chariot
Archer on chariot


Military History

Egypt was known for being one of the most peacful countries in The Middle East back then. Egypt was ususally never invaded because of their geographical location. Egypt is covered by desert in the South, West and has the Red Sea on the East. In the North there is the Mederterrainean Sea. A lot of the time, Egypt had civil wars usually the slaves down at the bottom of the social order against the higher people like political figures, rich and even the Pharaoh. At the start during the Old Kingdom the Egyptians built forts surrounding the Nile River to make sure nomads didn't try to settle into the fertile delta. They had four enemies which they fought against. First was the Libians from the Sahara Desert to the west. Second was the Nubians from the South. Third was Sinai and Canaanites to the northeast. Last was the nomadic groups who tried to settle in the fertile delta of the Nile. In the Old Kingdom there was no main army. The governors of each city had to raise volunteer workers to do the job. In the Intermediate Period things started to go out of control after the Pharaoh Pepy the 2nd died at the age of 94. This age back then was often never reached by anyone so after their was a huge civil war of who was going to take control of the country. In the Middle Kingdom things stabilized and were all settle. Egypt then started to escort troops through all trade routes to remain prosperous. They also expanded their border. In the Second Intermediate Period things were hectic. A Cannanite tribe called the Hyksos invaded Egypt from the Northeast. They eventually took control of both Upper and Lower Egypt. Most of the survivors fled to Thebes to plot a rebellion. The Egyptians learned a lot at that time remastering the Hyksos chariot, and composite bow. It took quite a while but after a long rebellion over Egypt, Ahmose the Pharaoh drove them out. In the New Kingdom Egypt had probabaly one of the biggest wars they have ever had. It was them against the Hittites in Kadesh. Egypt was trying to own more land and so got into a war. This war was a chariot war and was probably the biggest ever fought. Eventually Pharaoh Ramsess 2 one and was proclaimed victor of the war. After that Egypt conquered all land until the Euphrates River. As you can see, Egypts success in all things mainly relied on the military.
The Shasu spies shown being beaten by the Egyptians
The Shasu spies shown being beaten by the Egyptians



About Egyptians


The Egyptians were overall a very influencial and smart society. They were very smart and always faced invasions, wars and other obstacles that they overcame during their long dynasty. They knew what was best for everyone and how to deal with a bad stituation. I think they influenced are society mainly with the Navy. This whole new military tactic allowed a whole different view point of war. If The Egyptians haden't of invented the Navy they would not of exceeded like they did in all the wars and conflicts they faced. That we think is what the most valuable thing the Egyptians contributed to society. My partner and I both had a lot of fun on this project because this subject interests us so much.

Ancient Egypts Location

Egypt is located in Northern Africa. Egypt is covering an area of around 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,660 square mile). A great way to locate Egypt is by the Nile River which runs through the middle of Egypt. The main bodies of water in Egypt is the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Some of the really important things about the these bodies of water is that the Egyptians got there source of water from the Nile and have a great source of protection almost surrounding their country.

external image Ancient-egypt-map.jpg
http://www.love-egypt.com/images/Ancient-egypt-map.jpg




Military Changes By Time

Ancient Egypts military went through many different changes. From new weapons to a very large army. At the time of the Old Kingdom there wasn't a very serious army. It was a group of untrained men who would be on call of a conflict. During the First Intermediate Period the army was mostly made up of house troops that were drafted into the army. They also had some men from Nubia with bows and arrows. As time went on they kept this army through out the Middle Kingdom .During the Secong Intermediate Period they changed things up. Most of the army were trained to be personal troops for the pharaoh. Then during the late Period the army was a Greed Mercinary unit.

Military Technology

Throughout Egypts history the one thing that derastically changed was the Military technology. At the time of the Pre-Dynasty Period the army used very simple weapons like, cudgels, clubs, throwing sticks, daggers, bows, maces, and shields. During the old kingdom they started using more complex tules such as the Quiver, and the battle axe with a semi-surcular. During the Middle Kingdom the Scallop axe head and the battle axe was invented. At the time of the Second Intermediate Period The new inventions were the chariots, composite bow, and the narrow axe headed battle axe were invented. The most important period of them all was the New Kingdom and at that time the scimitar and body armour was invented. As you can see as time goes on there Military Technology got a lot more complex which resulted to Egypt becoming a very strong and independant country.
external image armc.jpg

Photo Gallery

http://www.king-tut.org.uk/images/mask-of-king-tut.jpg
http://www.king-tut.org.uk/images/mask-of-king-tut.jpg

http://www.king-tut.org.uk/images/mask-of-king-tut.jpg

external image weapons8.jpg
http://thepharaohs.100megspop2.com/armc.jpg
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/weapons8.jpg

This video educates you on the "Battle of Kadesh" which I have already explained in the Military History section. If you want to go to the full video see it on the youtube link in References down below.





Info received by:

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/soldier.ht
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/war.htm
http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/army.htm
http://www.youtube.com/v/eCi5Sk32veo&rel=1http://www.youtube.com/v/eCi5Sk32veo&rel=1
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/military/tech.html
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/war/index.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kadesh