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The Ancient Egyptians were skilled architects and surveyors. They were very practical people, they weren't interested in new ideas and inventions if the old ones worked well. As they continued to use older methods and technology, other countries became more advanced. Neighboring countries developed weapons made of iron, which the Egyptians lacked. They were easily defeated. However the Greeks and Romans learned a lot from the Egyptians who were great astronomers, architects, builders, doctors and dentists.

Ancient Egyptians invented many useful things we have today like cosmetics, brushes, locks and keys, glass, clocks, ink, looms, combs, scissors, surgical instruments, and many other amazing innovations. Also Egyptians invented ways to help them survive in the sometimes harsh climate of Egypt. They had boats to travel to other communities to trade, farming tools like plows and sickles that helped them harvest foods like barley and wheat efficiently. Ancient Egyptians devised irrigation systems and reservoirs to help water their crops and have bigger harvests. They had things called nilometres located along monuments close to the riverbank they measured the flood levels and helped predict how much it would flood next year. They could also cure meat and preserve food for times when there are little or no crops. Egyptians also had instruments that we still use today, to learn more, see Egyptian Music & Art. For more interesting inventions by the egyptians, go to http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egyptian-inventions.html.

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Egyptian Pyramids & Sphinx
Egyptian Pyramids & Sphinx

The Great Pyramids are legendary for being among the the biggest structures ever built. The Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids for their dead rulers. The dead were well known for being mummified and placed in tombs. The pharaohs were especially known for this. They were placed in gold tombs and then into their own pyramid. The Egyptians greatly believed in the after life, and buried their pharaohs were their possessions, treasures, food and even their family members (alive!). To learn more about their beliefs check out Egyptian Religion. Inside the pyramids were false entrances, booby traps, hidden passages and various other tricks to prevent people from robbing the treasures. However this didn't stop the robbers from stripping everything away, and stealing the limestone from the outside of the pyramids to build the city of Cairo.
To build a pyramid in those times it would take around 30 years to complete from beginning to end. The first pyramids designed by Imhotep had stepped sides and was made of stone or mud brick. It is unknown exactly how the ancient egyptians built the pyramids, because nothing was ever recorded on how they did it. Egyptologists (scientists that study ancient Egypt) think that one way it was done was that Egyptians carved limestone blocks from a nearby quarry and dragged them on wooden sledges over wet ground to the building site and were pulled up ramps of dirt and rock to get to the higher parts of the pyramid. A study in December of 2006 revealed that the outer limestone blocks of the Cheops pyramid were made out of limestone slurry or liquefied lime. They think that they quarried soft limestone and dissolved it in pools until it became slurry, and then put into a wooden mold on the building site and left to dry. Some people think that the concrete method was only used for the higher parts of the pyramid, so the two tonne limestone blocks didn't have to be dragged all the way up. Many people are suspicious how blocks of stone that can weigh almost ten tonnes like the granite stones in the heart of the pyramid were moved from quarries to the pyramid. Some people (not very many) believe that aliens built the pyramids, but this idea is very improbable and probably false... or is it?
Step Pyramid
Step Pyramid

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The Egyptians greatly believe in magic and the after life, some still do, but not the way the Ancient Egyptians did. They would build pyramids for their Pharaohs, and when the pharaoh died, they would put the pharaoh inside a tomb, deep into the labyrinth. However before they put the dead king into the tomb they would use linen bandages and natron, sodium bicarbonate and cover the corspe completely. This process is called mummification, and the corpse would then become mummified. They also removed the internal organs and places them in Canocopic Jars that were each stoppered with a carved head of a human, a baboon, a falcon, or a jackal. These heads represented the four protective spirits that were called the Four Sons of Horus. Their brain was also removed but thrown away because they thought it wasn't important.These steps would preserve the body and keep it relatively whole for a very long time. When the mummies were placed in the tombs, jewelry, pottery, food, and the book of the dead were sealed in the tomb with it to help guide the dead pharaohs spirit to rest in the afterlife. Egyptians believed that these things would help them when they came back from the dead. However mummification wasn't just for the dead. They would torture live people by cutting out their tongue, mummifying them alive and placing them in a sealed tomb with flesh eating bugs.
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ancient mummies
golden sarcophagus of King Tutankhamen
golden sarcophagus of King Tutankhamen

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The Ancient Egyptians didn't have the technology we did so they ended up spending years building the pyramids, cities, and other monuments. The number is uncertain but people thousands or possibly millions of salves were used to build the pyramids, and many died of the hard labour. To make something flat (when sculpting or building etc.) they used a right angle and a plumb line (see picture below). To move heavy blocks of stone on sledges, someone would pour water on the ground in front of it so it could move easier and they used simple wooden ploughs were pulled by cattle, when harvest time used wooden sickled set in with flint teeth. The Egpyptians also builtthe famous Sphinx, to learn more about this monument visit http://interoz.com/egypt/sphinx.htm.

plumb-line and plumb bob
plumb-line and plumb bob

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The Egyptians used a linear unit of measurement called the Royal Cubit. It measured 523.5mm in length and was subdivided into 7 palms (width of your hand) of 4 digits each, giving 28 digits. This unit of measurement is equivalent to 20.61023622 inches. The Royal Cubit was a standard unit of measurement from 2,700 B.C. Many artifacts of actual cubit rules have lasted after all this time.
The best evidence found on on the Egyptians unit of measurement is on the Egyptian ceremonial rulers. It was carved in stone.It was clear enough for even those not fluent in reading hieroglyphic writing can see the mh or foot cubit glyph spanning 15 fingers (3 hands) and 16 fingers (four palms = 300 mm).

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Today we have thousands of kinds of food we eat. The ancient Egyptians are one of the many to thank for this. they invented marshmallow candy over three thousand years ago. The candy was made from a root from a plant known as the marshmallow plant or Althea officinalis, which grows in marshes. Today however gelatin substitutes the sweet, sticky, mallow root. They also invented pancakes, a yummy meal many families enjoy at breakfast. They learned how to preserve food using natron. And while the Egyptians did not create beer, they gave us the best documentation of ancient brewing practices and the oldest wine cellars were discovered in Egypt. And after eating and drinking their food they kept their mouth clean with the toothbrush and toothpaste. To learn more about Egyptian food check out Egyptian Food.

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Today we have daily routines and in those routines we use personal items. We had similar routines thousands of years ago too, they've just advanced a lot. Everyday in the morning and night we brush our teeth. Many years ago the Ancient Egyptians and many other cultures did the same but with own different their inventions of the toothstick which was made from porcupine quills, bird feathers, or wooden thorns. They also invented brushes and combs, some of which were used to brush wigs which the Egyptians also invented along with cough drops, scissors, make-up and deodorants.
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An anceint comb


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Music has been playing for thousands of years. Music can be anything from singing, a simple beat to instruments. The Ancient Egyptians helped music by giving it some instruments to make music sound better. They invented the wind organ, trumpet, sistrum, rattles, and the tambourine. To find out more about Egyptian instruments go to Egyptian Music and Art. Wealthy Egyptians held parties and had musicians, singers, dancers and acrobats were hired for entertainment. They also had festivals in honour of their gods where they paraded down the streets in masks with dancers and musicians behind and many of the townspeople sang for the joyous parade. To find out more about these parties see Egyptian Food and Festivals.
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A Sistrum
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rattles
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Tambourine
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King Tut's silver trumpet

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The Egyptians helped us move along and helped many people live through tough times. Ancient Egyptians were the earliest holistic health practitioners. They would treat their patients physically, mentally, and spiritually. Treatment varies from herbal and magic medicine to surgical treatment. Egyptian doctors and dentists also discovered how to use antibiotics and surgical instruments.Plus mummification made them excel in anatomy. They had surgical instruments that could remove a dead pharaohs brain through their nose and ones to remove their internal organs. They could prescribe contraceptives, carried out circumcisions and conducted pregnancy tests.


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Long ago the Egyptians invented things to help us with our everyday lives. They invented things like the lock and key, the loom, metal piping, cement and carpentry joints. They also invented some part of mathematics like, equation solutions, geometric series, fractions and the decimal system, and engineering. Speaking of engineering, they invented the first steam engine. Another way of transportation they invented was boats with sails. The Egyptians even invented one of the keys to civilization: writing. They invented writing with ink on paper. Along with writing they also invented painting on plaster. They also first to create glass and faience objects.
We base everything on time. It keeps us organized, without it everything would out of place and everyone would confused. No one would known what to do and when to do it. However thankfully the Egyptians solved that problem by inventing 365 days calendar and the 24-Hour division of the day. Senet, one of the world's oldest known board games was created by the Egyptians.


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  • Ancient Egyptians devised irrigation systems, reservoirs and ways of measuring the flood levels. These are called nilometers and several are located along monuments close to the river banks. Tourists can see one of these nilometers in the Elephantine island in Aswan.
  • In the Valley of the Kings there is ample testimony of the ancient Egyptians ability to dig complex structures.
  • Egyptian workers organized the first known labor strike.
  • The first written international peace treaty happened between Ramses the Second of Egypt and Hattusili III of the Hittite empire.
  • Pharaoh Akhenaten established the first official monotheistic religious state.


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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X2g9_2o5BAM http://youtube.com/watch?v=vXOhidB9A4I

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picture of an ancient metal mirror from http://flickr.com/photos/violentz/265748878/
picture of an ancient metal mirror from http://flickr.com/photos/violentz/265748878/
 picture of ancient egyptian pots from http://flickr.com/photos/violentz/265759809/
picture of ancient egyptian pots from http://flickr.com/photos/violentz/265759809/


picture of ancient artifacts from http://flickr.com/photos/7582553@N05/1681308060/
picture of ancient artifacts from http://flickr.com/photos/7582553@N05/1681308060/


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