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Egyptian Food and Festivals
By Julia and Stephy F.

Bold word definitions at the bottom

EGYPT: Introduction

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Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, is one of the well-known countries in the world. It is located in Northern Africa which borders Libya to the West, Sudan to the South, and Israel to the East. As for the northern coast of Egypt, it borders the Mediterranean Sea. Because Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa, many based their lives on the Nile River. The main and obvious reason why Egypt is so famous is because of its cultural beliefs and traditions. Also, Egypt's ancient civilization such as the Valley of the Kings where many pharaohs were buried and artefacts have been discovered by one of many the greatest archaeologists. The Egyptian culture has been recorded since five thousand years ago. In addition, it is widely known as a vital political and culture nation in the Middle East.


Ancient Egypt:

Ancient Egypt's civilization initiated in Eastern North Africa. Most ancient Egyptians based on their survival on the Nile River. It was among the earliest civilizations and maintained a sturdy and complicated culture that affected cultures of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Pyramids were built to symbolize the pharaoh that is abated away. Also, these pyramids maintained symbols of ancient civilization of Egypt. They believed strongly in a religion and praised for the gods and the goddesses.

Modern Egypt:

These days, Egypt’s ancient culture has been developed. More tech-savvy technology are
modern egypt
modern egypt
being used in Egypt such as mobiles, vehicles and many others. Even if Egypt is altering as we speak, it will not lose its ancient and complex culture roots. In addition, Egyptians still believe in the gods and the goddesses. They hold festivals for their birthdays and praise for the things the gods gave them such as crops.


Egyptian Food



Egyptians were able to grow many crops even in bad climate. Although Egypt was an arid area, there were lots of food for everyone, even the poors could afford rich and luxurious food such as things like fish or duck. They were required to eat a lot of food especially in festivals, but most of them stayed fit and slim. The Egyptians baked the food the hunted in clay ovens. They
Egyptian Food
Egyptian Food
hunted gazelles, birds, fowls, pelicans, cranes and so on. Some of the palace food would come from places such as Rome and the island Malta from trading. As well as from weary fishermen from many places after long weeks (even months) of fishing hoping for a big buyer. The Egyptians loved their food so much that they even used it to pay taxes. The collected food are stored and used as emergency food for natural disasters such as drought. Many food that are eaten these days were invented by the Ancient Egyptians. Some of the foods are marshmallows and pancakes. In addition, they learned how to preserve the food; often, they usually dried the fruits in order to keep them fresh. They had many great beer brewing techniques and owned some of the oldest wine cellars in Egypt.


HUNTERS AND GATHERERS:


Civilization in Egypt began around 3000 BC in Eastern Africa. It was difficult to grow any crops
Harvest at Avaris
Harvest at Avaris
and start a civilization because of the climate. It was arid and humid. The Egyptians eventually started to be able to farm in
the end, but the land was always hot. Even though the Egyptians ate rich fattening food, they all stayed fit from farming. There were three seasons for Egypt. The first season was the most important season since it was when the flooding began. The flood season was when the Nile River flooded over. This produced rich, thick fertile soil. This made the Egyptians crops very rich and was wanted from different countries.

The Egyptians also hunted their food. They hunted things like duck, catfish, mullet, gazelle, birds, Fowls (geese, pigeons, Herons, Pelicans, Cranes, Wild Ducks, amd wild geese. They cooked the hunted animals in a clay oven. The egytians raised cattle too, and then killed them for food. The cattle they raised were animals such as, goats and sheep. The scribes would count the cattle to make sure they were all there for cooking. A scribe is a person usually a boy) that has gone to school and learned how to read and write. Usually only the rich children could become scribes because there was usually a fee to get into the school.


WAYS TO COOK:

Egyptian Bread
Egyptian Bread
There were many different styles the Egyptians liked to cook. Most Egyptians fried, boiled, grilled, roasted, stewed, and cooked just in open fire. One of their delicacies were they would put fruit and sesame seeds in the bread that they used to make barley. Moreover, they would use honey, nuts, and sesame seeds to sweeten the bread to give that extra pleasant taste. In addition, most grilling and roasting were done in ovens made out of clay; it helped the Egyptians to cook the food faster. However, some peasants ate bread that had sand and rocks mixed in them because they couldn't find good land. Therefore, people were able to tell if someone was in third class if they were missing teeth from the rocks.

The Egyptians were fairly civilized. They had silverware made out of gold, silver, and bronze but these were used by pharaohs and the high class people. Often, people would use their hands to eat food. Therefore, servants or people lower in the social order would carry napkins and scented water for the higher placed citizens to clean their hands.


MENU OF THE RICH:

The majority of the rich Egyptians were pharaohs and who became successful
Egy07-1111
Egy07-1111
by selling their crops. In festivals, particularly, many high-quality food were served. Some of them were cooked water fowls and gazelle, date wine, and bread. These food were served in hand-woven baskets. Also, to show their wealth, they used gold, silver, or bronze plates.




Egyptian Festivals
Festivals were very important to the Egyptians. They allowed the rich or poor to put away their worries and celebrate joyful days for a couple of days or longer. Also, food was another big part in Egyptian festivals. Some food was even believed to be of sacred meaning. The national drink of Egypt, beer, was mainly used as a beverage in ceremonies and festivals. Festivals were mainly held in state temples. Egyptians were not allowed past the courtyard. Only priests were allowed inside of these holy temples.
The major religions in Egypt were Amun at Thebes, Hathor of Dendra, Horus of Edfu, and others. Often, the Egyptians inscribed on the walls of caves and temples for a holy reason.




Belly Dancing was also a custom Egyptian had. In this video it show belly dancing a little more modern and less ceremonial than it was years ago in Egypt.


CALENDARS



Many of these festivals are relevant to serving and praising Gods and Goddesses for what they have given to the Egyptians. The Egyptians were so cultic that they celebrated for several days and even a week. If you follow this link, you will find charts of festivals that are celebrated.


The months of the egyptian calendar are Thuthi, Paopi, Hethera, Koiak, Tybi, Mechir, Pamenot, Parmutit, Pachons, Payni, Epipi, and Mesore.


THE EPAGOMENAL DAYS

Egyptian Calendar
Greogorian Calendar
Festival/Celebration
1
July 14th
Birthday of Wasir (Osiris)
2
July 15th
Birthday of Heru-Dunawhy
3
July 16th
Birthday of Set
4
July 17th
Birthday of Aset (Isis)
5
July 18th
Birthday of Nebet-Het (Nephthys)


The link to the rest of the Egyptian calendar is: http://showcase.netins.net/web/ankh/calendar1.html

References:
Sites:
"Egyptian Life." Ancient Egypt. 29 Feb. 2008 <http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/index.html>.
"Egypt." Angel Fire. 29 Feb. 2008 <http://www.angelfire.com/wi/egypt/>.
Books:
Wilkinson, R. H. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson, 2000.
Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell Books, 1992.
Harris, Geraldine. Ancient Egypt. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
Kemp, Barry. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. Routledge, 1991.
Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford UP, 2003.

Pictures:
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/food/pictures/dates.jpg>.
http://flickr.com/search/?q=Egyptian+foodhttp:flickr.com/search/?q=Egyptian+food
http://flickr.com/search/?q=Egyptian+foodhttp:
flickr.com/photos/deepblue66/2221540296/
http://flickr.com/photos/arabiannights/486492515.
http://terraflex.co.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/food.html.__
http://farm1.static.flickr.com/218/486492515_ae0cfb0b5b.jpg?v=0>.
http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibits/egypt/food.htm>.__
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/festival.htm>.

Word Bank

Middle east: the area from Libya E to Afghanistan, usually including Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the other countries of the Arabian peninsula.

Belly Dancing: an oriental solo dance, preformed by a woman with midriff exposed, emphasizing movements of the pelvis and abdominal muscles

Pyramids:
a.
(in ancient Egypt) a quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth, steeply sloping sides meeting at an apex, used as a tomb.
b. (in ancient Egypt and pre-Columbian Central America) a quadrilateral masonry mass, stepped and sharply sloping, used as a tomb or a platform for a temple.

mobiles: cell phones